Prospective cohort study - Wikipedia


prospective case study

A prospective cohort study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain outcome. May 01,  · Methods. A prospective case-control study was performed involving case patients (both children and adults) who presented with diarrhea to the Dhaka hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and control subjects with asymptomatic by: Prospective cohort study (PCS) is a powerful observational study and, A special type of case-control design called a nested case-control study avoids many of the potential pitfalls of classic case-control studies by selecting cases and controls from within a broader population sample established at some time before the onset of disease.

Prospective, Retrospective, Case-control, Cohort Studies - StatsDirect

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Click here to return to the Medical News Today home page. If public health scientists want a quick and easy way to highlight clues about the cause of a new disease outbreak, they can compare two groups of people: Cases, the term for people who already prospective case study the disease, and controls, or people not affected by the disease.

Other terms used to describe case-control studies include epidemiological, retrospective, and observational. A case-control study is a way of carrying out a medical investigation to confirm or indicate what is likely to have caused a condition. They are usually retrospective, meaning that the researchers look at past data to test prospective case study a particular outcome can be linked back to a suspected risk factor and prevent further outbreaks.

Prospective case-control studies are less common. These involve enrolling a specific selection of people and following that group while monitoring their health. Cases emerge as people who develop the disease or condition under investigation as the prospective case study progresses. Those unaffected by the disease form the control group. To test for specific causes, the scientists need to create a hypothesis about possible causes of the outbreak or disease.

These are known as risk factors. They compare how often the people in the group of cases had been exposed to the suspected cause against how often members of the control group had been exposed, prospective case study.

If more participants in the case group experience the risk factor, this suggests that it is a likely cause of the disease. Researchers might also uncover likely risk factors not mentioned in their hypothesis by studying the medical and personal histories of the people in each group. A pattern may emerge that prospective case study the condition to certain factors. If a specific risk factor has already been identified for a disease or condition, such as age, sex, smoking, or eating red meat, the researchers can use statistical methods to adjust the study to account for that risk factor, helping them to identify other possible prospective case study factors more easily.

Case-control research is a vital tool used by epidemiologists, or researchers who look into the factors affecting health and illness of populations. Just one risk factor could be investigated for a particular outcome, prospective case study. A good example of this is to compare the number people with lung cancer who have a history of smoking with the number who do not.

This will indicate the link between lung cancer and prospective case study. Case-control studies are usually based on past data, so all of the prospective case study information is readily available, making them quick to carry out. Scientists can analyze existing data to look at health events that prospective case study already happened and risk factors that have already been observed. A retrospective case-control study does not require scientists to wait and see what happens in a trial over a period of days, weeks, or years.

The fact that the data is already available for collation and analysis means that a case-control study is useful when quick results are desired, perhaps when clues are sought for what is causing a sudden disease outbreak. A prospective case-control study may also be helpful in this scenario as researchers can collect data on suspected risk factors while they monitor for new cases. The time-saving advantage offered by case-control studies also prospective case study they are more practical than other scientific trial designs if the exposure to a suspected cause occurs a long time before the outcome of a disease.

For example, if you wanted to test the hypothesis that a disease seen in adulthood is linked to factors occurring in young children, a prospective study would take decades to carry out.

A case-control prospective case study is a far more feasible option. Numerous risk factors can be evaluated in case-control studies since they do not require large numbers of participants to be statistically prospective case study. More resources can be dedicated to the analysis of fewer people. As case-control studies are observational prospective case study usually about people who have already experienced a condition, prospective case study, they do not pose the ethical problems seen with some interventional studies.

For example, it would be unethical to deprive a group of children of a potentially lifesaving vaccine to see who developed the associated disease. However, analyzing a group of children with limited access to that vaccine can help determine who is at most risk of developing the disease, as well as helping to guide future vaccination efforts.

While a case-control study can help to test a hypothesis about the link between a risk factor and an outcome, it is not as powerful as other types of study in confirming a causal relationship. Case-control studies are often used to provide early clues and inform further research using more rigorous scientific methods. The main problem with case-control studies is that they are not as reliable as planned studies that record data in real time, because they look into data from the past.

When people answer questions about their previous exposure to certain risk factors their ability to recall may be unreliable. Compared to people not affected by a condition, prospective case study, individuals with a certain disease outcome may be more likely to recall a certain risk factor, even if it did not exist, prospective case study, because of a temptation to make their own subjective links to explain their condition.

This bias may be reduced if data about the prospective case study factors - exposure to certain drugs, for example - had been entered into reliable records at the time. But this may not be possible for lifestyle factors, for example, because they are usually investigated by questionnaire. An example of recall bias is the difference between asking study participants to recall the weather at the time of the onset of a certain symptom, versus an analysis of scientifically measured weather patterns around the time of a formal diagnosis.

Finding a measurement of exposure to a risk factor in the body is another way of making case-control studies more reliable and less subjective. These are known as biomarkers. For example, researchers may look at results of blood or urine tests for evidence of a specific drug, rather than asking a participant about drug use.

An association found between a disease and a possible risk does not necessarily mean one factor directly caused the other.

In fact, a retrospective study can never definitively prove that a link represents a definite cause, prospective case study, as it is not an experiment.

There are, though, questions that can be used to test the likelihood of a causal relationship, such as the extent of the association or whether there is a 'dose response' to increasing exposure to the risk factor. One way of illustrating the limitations of cause-and-effect is to look at associations found between a cultural factor and a particular health effect, prospective case study.

The cultural factor itself, such as a certain type of exercise, may not be causing the outcome if the same cultural group of cases shares another plausible common factor, such as a certain food preference. Some risk factors are linked to others. Researchers have to take into account overlaps between risk factors, such as leading a sedentary lifestyle, being depressed, and living in poverty. If researchers conducting a retrospective case-control study find an association between depression and weight gain over time, for example, they cannot say with any prospective case study that depression is a risk factor for weight gain without bringing in a control group containing people who follow a sedentary lifestyle.

The cases and controls selected for study may not truly represent the disease under investigation. An example of this occurs when cases prospective case study seen in a teaching hospital, a highly specialized setting compared with most settings in which the disease may occur. The controls, too, may not be typical of the population. People volunteering their data for the study may have a particularly high level of health motivation. There are other limitations to case-control studies.

While they are good for studying rare conditions, as they do not require large groups of participants, they are less useful for examining rare risk factors, which are more clearly indicated by cohort studies, prospective case study. Finally, case-control studies cannot confirm different levels or types of the disease being investigated, prospective case study. They can look at only one outcome because a case is defined by whether they did or did not have the condition, prospective case study.

Article last updated by Adam Felman on Wed 16 May All references are available in the References tab. Introduction to study designs — case-control studies. Mann, C, prospective case study.

Observational research methods, prospective case study. Emergency Medicine Journal, 20 Prospective vs. MediLexicon, Intl. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media.

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Difference Between Cohort and Case-Control Study -


prospective case study


Keywords: observational studies, case-control study, Although prospective cohort studies are invaluable as exemplified by the landmark Framingham Heart Study, started in and still ongoing, 10 in the plastic surgery literature this study design is generally seen to be inefficient and impractical. Instead, retrospective cohort studies Cited by: Prospective vs. Retrospective Studies Prospective. A prospective study watches for outcomes, such as the development of a disease, during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor(s). The study usually involves taking a . Jul 30,  · On the other hand, a case-control study is a research design used by researchers where the research begins with an outcome to comprehend the cause. One key difference between cohort and case-control study is that the cohort study is prospective while the case-control study is retrospective. Through this article let us further examine the.